Saturday, July 2, 2011

Rare Cancer in Adulthood - Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a aggressive cancer arises from the cells thin layer of tissue, covering the majority of your internal organs such as the tissue surrounded the lungs, in the abdomen, around the heart, the testicles, etc.

Types of mesothelioma
There are 3 main types of mesothelioma, depending to the origination of the cancer
1. Pleural mesothelioma
If the cancer arises from the tissue of the lung.
2. Peritoneal mesothelioma
If the cancers arises from the malignant cells of the tissue in the abdomen.
3. Pericardial Mesothelioma
If the cancer arises from the malignant cells of the tissue of the cavity that surrounds the heart.

Symptoms
Symptoms may be vary depending to the types of the disease.
1. Chest pain under the rib cage
If the cancer arises from the lung.
2. Persistently painful coughing
Cancer has affected the lung function.
3. Shortness of breath
Cancer has affected the lung function.
4. Lump on the chest
Cancer has spread to the chest lymph nodes
5. Weight loss
Unintentional weight loss of over 10% is a general symptom of cancers.
6. Loss of appetite
Another symptom of cancers
7. Abdominal pain
If cancer arises from the tissue of abdomen.
8. Swelling
Due to fluid retention or tumor.
9. Lump on the abdomen
Cancer has invades the abdominal lymph nodes.
10. Etc.

Causes and risk factors
1. Asbestos exposure
According to the study in 1960 finally identified asbestos as a causative factor in mesothelioma cases in South Africa. and in 1992 researchers learned that DNA can adhere to asbestos fibers; when these fibers enter cells, they can transfer DNA from one cell to another, leading to
mutations and cancer.

2. Radiation
IN a 2005 study entitled “Clinical Course of Thoracic Cancers in Hodgkin’s Disease Survivors” (P. Das, A.K. Ng, M.A. Stevenson, and P.M. Mauch), researchers found that Hodgkin’s disease patients who were treated with radiation therapy have a high incidence of mesothelioma disease.

3. Zeolite
In a study, 891 men and women who lived in three different Turkish villages in the Cappadocia region. In two of the villages, the residents were exposed to erionite. The third was used as a control. followed 891 men and women who lived in three different Turkish villages in the Cappadocia region. In two of the villages, the residents were exposed to erionite. The third was used as a control over 23 years period, researchers found that during the study, which stretched from 1979 until 2003, 372 individuals died. Of all those who passed away, 119 were stricken with mesothelioma cancer and died as a result of the disease or complications of the disease. In the two villages where residents were exposed to the toxic mineral, the pleural mesothelioma death rate was 44.5 percent. There were only 2 deaths from mesothelioma in the control village and both of those individuals were born outside of that control village.

4. Simian virus 40 used in polio vaccines.
In some studies, researchers found that there is a link between mesothelioma and simian virus 40 (SV40), a virus originally found in monkeys.

5. Family history
Increased risk of mesothelioma if you have a family history of the disease.

6. Living with people exposed to asbestos
It may be caused by asbestos attached to the clothing during exposure.

7. Etc.


Grades
The grade of mesothelioma are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Stages
Mesothelioma is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated into deeper tissue and remain on the surface of the tissue.
2. Stage I
In stage I, the cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep the inside tissue lining but still completely inside the affected organ or cavity.
a. Stage IA
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is not less than 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2:
The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b.Stage IB:
The cancer in this stage have invaded the other tissue of the organ, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)
3. Stage IIIn stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the affected organ or cavity.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the affected organ or cavity.

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissue immediately outside of the affected organ and cavity to distant parts of the body.

Diagnosis and tests
After recording your family history and a complete physical exams for any lump in the affected area, your doctor may suggested
1. Biopsy
In mesothelioma biopsy, a very small tissue sample is extracted and examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells by using a thin, tube like medical instrument to look for the grade of abnormal cells growth, deepening to the location and type of the cancer.

2. Chest x ray
If the cancer is originated from the tissue of the lung or your doctor suspected that cancer has invaded the lung tissue.

3. CT scan
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details. The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. Unfortunately, CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.

4. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the tissue, the organ and surrounding areas.

5. Positron emission tomography (PET)
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging with the uses of small amounts of short-lived radioactive material, either injected into a vein, swallowed or inhaled as a gas which will appear in the area of the body being examined, where it gives off energy in the form of gamma rays detected by a camera of positron emission tomography that produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes of the organ in the body.

6. Etc.

Preventions
A. What to void
1. Avoid exposed to asbestos
If occupation required, please take all precaution to protect yourself.
2. Change your occupation
If you are working in the industrial occupation with exposure to the asbestos, you might consider to change your job to protect you and your family against the developing of mesothelioma.
3. Monitor your health
If you are in the asbestos related occupation.
4. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Green tea
Green tea contain low levels of oxalate and some researchers believe that the amount of oxalate may already absorbed by the digestive system, before it has the change to enter the body . In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.

2. Carrot
Study found that carrot contains high amount of falcarinol may affect the growth of cancer.

3. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

4. Grape
Grape contains high amount of resveratrol which in some clinical studies of resveratrol, researchers found that resveratrol demonstrated an ability to reduce tumors already in existence, prevent cellular damage, and work to increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

5. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

6. Etc.

C. Nutritional supplements
1. Antioxidant - free radical scavengers
Vitamin A, C, E are free radical scavengers enhanced the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth. For more information of how antioxidants help to treat cancer, click here

2. Falcarinol
In a study from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK) and the University of Southern Denmark (Odense) used a rat model to study the effect of carrots and falcarinol on tumor development, researchers found that found a diet rich in carrots provides anticancer benefits due to the activity of the chemical falcarinol, a natural pesticide, which carrots produce to defend themselves against fungal diseases.

3. Resveratrol and proanthocyanidins
In somestudies, researchers found that antioxident properties of resveratrol and proanthocyanidins, a substance found in grape seed extract, have been shown to prevent the cellular damage that often leads to cancer in both tissue samples and animal tests.

4. Lycopene
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.

5. Beta -carotene
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development.

6. Etc.


Treatments
A. In conventional medicine
1. Surgery
a. The aim of the surgery is to cure, if the cancer diagnosed in early stage, the tumor can be removed completely, depending to the location and size of the tumor. In case cancer can not be removed completely radiotherapy to kills the cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing locally or chemotherapy if the cancer has spread to distant part of the body.
b. Risk and side effects
Surgical and anesthesia risk

2. Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy
a. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills lung cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing. Depending to stage, grade and location of the affected area. Radiation may be used in situations when surgery isn't an option.
b. Side effects
b.1.. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.

3. Chemotherapy
a. Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of the cancer, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs such as adriamycin, cis-platinum, cyclophosphamide, etc. taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

4. Etc.

B. Herbal medicine
1. Asparagus Cochinchinensis
In vitro studies researchers found that curcumin acts as a weak phytoestrogen, exhibits neuroprotective, antiproliferative and preventative effects against cancer.

2. Devil's Claw
The extract of Harpagophytum procumbens, commonly known as devil's claw,In vitro studies, researchers found that cat's claw demonstrated anticancer effects against several cancer cell lines and has been reported to be effective in the treatment of lymphoma cancer, according to a study conducted by K. S. Wilson, M.D., which was published in the journal "Current Oncology" in August 2009.

3. Allium tuberosum
In a study of A Pilot Study on Anticancer Activities of Chinese Leek researchers found that Chinese leek extract inhibited cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Oral administration of leek extract significantly reduced lung metastases in the present animal model.

4. Nettle
Nettle or stinging nettle, is a perennial plant growing in temperate and tropical wasteland areas around the world, genus Urtica, belonging to the family Urticaceae. In some studies, research found that nettle's anti-inflammatory actions are attributed to its ability to interrupt the production and actions of inflammation-producing immune cells in the body (cytokines, prostaglandins and leukotreines)

5. Scutellaria
Scutellaria is also known as skullcaps, a genus of flowering plants, genus Scutellaria, belonging to family Lamiaceae. In a study of Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis by Scutellaria Baicalensis, researchers found that Scutellaria baicalensis selectively and effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and can be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for HNSCC. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis via suppression of COX-2 expression may be responsible for its anticancer activity.

6. Etc.

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. In-vitro, researchers found that saponins in Gan Cao stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess anti-cancer activities.

2. Bai Hua She She Cao
The Sanjiv Kumar YADAV, Shao Chin LEE(Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore researcher results showed that the ethanol extract from Bai Hua She She Cao effectively evokes cancer cell apoptosis, possibly through burst-mediated caspase activation.

3. Wu Ling Zhi
Wu Ling Zhi is also known as Trogopterus Dung. A report from China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 2006-07 showed that Radix ex Rhizoma Ginseng and Trogopterus Dung inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of tumor cell.

4. Jiu Zi (Chinese leek)
In a study of A Pilot Study on Anticancer Activities of Chinese Leek researchers found that Chinese leek extract inhibited cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro.

5. Lei Gong Teng (Thunder God Vine) and Teng Huang (Gamboge)
Celastrol is a chemical found in the Chinese herb called Lei Gong Teng (Tripterygii Wilfordi Radix Folium). Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of Teng Huang gamboge. A recent study was conducted at the Medical College of Georgia in Atlanta, funded in part by the by National Institutes of Health, the Mayo Foundation and a grant from the American Heart Association. The study reported a “combination of Gambogic acid (GA) and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect” and concluded this “may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.”

6. Etc.

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1 comment:

  1. There are three types of mesothelioma in which pleural mesothelioma is most common.
    Mesothelioma

    ReplyDelete