Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Most common Types of Cancer -Stomach Cancer/Gastric Cancer

Stomach located between the esophagus and the small intestine, is a muscular, hollow and an important organ of the digestive tract.

Stomach cancer is defined as condition of abnormal growth of the mucus-producing cells of the inside lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.

Types of stomach cancer
1. Adenocarcinoma
If cancer arises from the glands in the mucosa
a. Superficial spreading
It is an early stage of the cancer and tend to be less aggressive or ulcer
b. Polyloid
Cancer grows in pattern like a polyp and is less aggressive.
c. Infiltrating
If cancer grows in infiltrating pattern into the stomach wall and more aggressive.
d. Linitis plastica
Cancer grows diffusivity throughout the whole wall of stomach

2. Lymphomas
Cancer of the lymphocytes originated from the stomach and behave much like lyphomas of the other parts of the body but

3. Sarcomas
Cancer originated from the connected tissue of the stomach behave much like sarcomas of the other parts of the body but adenocarcinoma

Like many other cancer, in early stage of stomach cancer, there may not be any symptom. As the cancer progress, common symptoms include
1. Pain and/or discomfort in the stomach area
2. Unintentional weight loss
Any weight loss of over 10% unintentional should be a concern.
3. Mild ache in the upper part of the body
4. Loss of appetite
A common of all cancers
5. Loss of energy
6. Tiredness
7. Nausea and vomiting
8. Difficult swallowing
9. Vomiting blood or having blood in the stool
10. Feeling full or bloated after a small meal
11. Etc.

Causes and risk factor
1. Age
Most stomach cancer found in adult at their fifty
2. Diet
Exposure to certain chemical carcinogens in the foods of first 20 years of life or over a prolonged period of time may increase the risk of stomach cancer.
3. Bacteria
Researchers found that people with stomach cancer also contains bacteria Heliocbacter polorii in their stomach.
4. Hydrochloric acid production
People with Low amount or no of hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach are at risk to develop stomach cancer
5. Long-term inflammation of the stomach
People who have conditions associated with long-term stomach inflammation are at slightly increased risk of stomach cancer.
6. Family history
The risk of stomach increase if one of the member of your direct family has it.
7. Smoking
May be caused certain cigarette carcinogens
8. Obesity
In a study of Overweight, obesity and gastric cancer risk: Results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies, researchers found that overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The strength of the association also increases with increasing BMI.
8. Etc.

The Grades of stomach cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates

Stomach cancer is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0,
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the the inside lining of the stomach.
2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep the inside stomach lining but still completely inside the stomach
a. Stage IA
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is not less than 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2:
The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.b.
Stage IB:
The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the stomach lining.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the stomach lining.

5. Stage IVIn this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the stomach to distant parts of the body.

Diagnosis and tests
After carefully recording your family history and physical exams to check for swollen lymph nodes, and any abnormality inside your stomach by a endoscope.
1. Endoscopy is thin, tube-like instrument with camera and light at the end to view your stomach by passing it through your mouth and esophagus to the stomach. spray anesthesia is
applied to the throat area.

2. Stomach biopsy
In stomach biopsy, samples of affected abnormal area are taken by a thin, tube-like instrument(endoscope) to examine under microscopy to review the stage of the cancer.

3. Barium meal (special X ray)
In this test, you require to drink a white liquid which will show up on the X ray to check for structural and motility abnormalities of the stomach

4. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but it can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.

5. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the lymph nodes and surrounding areas.

6. Etc.

A. How to avoid
1. Avoid infection caused by H. pylori
Researchers found that people with stomach cancer also contains bacteria Heliocbacter polorii in their stomach by taking vitamin C, beta-carotene and others anti-bacteria andioxidants.

2. Reduce weight
In study of a meta-analysis of cohort studies, researchers found that overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer.

3. Excessive alcohol drinking
Alcohol beside is best known for its cause of liver disease, it also can lead stomach cancer due prolonged period of burning sensation of its ingredients. In some studies, researchers found that 3.6% of all cancer cases and 3.5% of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to consumption of alcohol, including stomach cancer.

4. Quit smoking
In a A Taiwanese study concluded, "…cigarette smoking may play the most harmful role in the initial development of gastric cancer, and that drinking alcohol may promote the process."
May be it is caused certain cigarette carcinogens.

5. Avoid intake high amount of smoked or spicy foods
In a study of Smoked food and cancer, researcher mentioned that smoking is a well-known source of food contaminated caused by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Epidemiological studies indicates a statistical correlation between the increased occurrence of cancer of the intestinal tract and the frequent intake of smoked foods.

6. Using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
In experimental and epidemiologic (nonrandomized) studies, along with randomized clinical trials, have shown that NSAIDs may have a prophylactic effect against certain cancers.

7. Eating organic healthy foods are always helpful in preventing long-term stomach inflammation

8. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Eat less red meat and fat
Red-meat lovers may have a greater likelihood of developing certain cancers of the throat and stomach than people who limit their intake of steaks and hamburgers, a new study suggests.

2. Low-Sodium Foods
In a newly published public health study, which appears in the current issue of the British Journal of Cancer, researchers found that there appears to strongly link excess salt consumption with an increased risk of developing stomach cancer.

3. Green tea
In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.

4. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

5. Mediterranean diet
A new study published on Dec 9 in the online journal American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has associated use of Mediterranean diet with a lower risk of stomach or gastric cancer.

6. Etc.
C. Nutritional supplements
1. Vitamin A, C, E
Vitamin A, C, E are free radical scavengers enhanced the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth. For more information of how antioxidants help to treat cancer, click here

2. Beta- carotene and vitamin C
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development. In a study by Orleans, of more than 600 people from an area of South America found that people who took the three-drug combination alone or in combination with vitamin C and/or beta carotene were three to five times more likely than people who received no treatment to have a reduction in the size of precancerous stomach abnormalities. People in the study who received only antioxidant vitamins -- either vitamin C and beta-carotene alone or together -- also showed improvement.

3. Selenium
Research showed that selenium has a protective effect on various stages of cancer, including both the early and later stages of the disease. In a study in large groups of people, researchers found that in areas of the world where selenium levels in the soil are high, death rates from cancer are significantly lower than in areas where selenium levels are low.

4. Lycopene
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.

5. Indole-3-carbinol
Cabbage, a curciferous vegetables contains high amount of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.

6. Etc.

For healthy foods diet you are directed to my previous 100+ healthy food list for in-depth information

A. Conventional medicine
1. Surgery (either partial or total gastrotrectomy)
Depending to the extend of cancer, stage, grade and location, surgery can be either partial ( only part of stomach is removed) or total.
1. Total gastrectomy if cancer located at the upper part of the stomach
The surgeon removes the entire stomach, nearby lymph nodes, parts of the esophagus and small intestine, and other tissues near the tumor. sometime depending to the extend of the cancer, the spleen also may be removed. The surgeon then connects the esophagus directly to the small intestine.

2. Subtotal (Partial) gastrectomy if cancer located at the lower part of the stomach
The surgeon removes the lower part of the stomach with the cancer. The surgeon attaches the remaining part of the stomach to the intestine. Nearby lymph nodes and other tissues may also be removed. The greatest risk of stomach surgery is malnutrition caused by decreased appetite and inability to digest food, causing food to move into the small intestine faster than normal, that can lead lead to gastric dumping syndrome.

2. Adjuvant therapy
In case cancer is completely removed but to prevent the recurrence, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with drugs such as 5-flourouracil and leuccovorin) may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells.

3. Chemotherapy
a. Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of stomach cancer, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

4. Radiotherapy
a. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills lung cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing. Depending to stage, grade and location of the affected area. Radiotherapy in stomach cancer is only helpful in case cancer can not remove fully and is causing prolonged bleeding.
b. Side effects
b.1.. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.
5. Etc.

B. Herbal medicine
1. Fenugreek
Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed), genus Trigonella, belonging to family Fabaceae. Vitro studies have shown that fenugreek exhibits chemopreventive properties against certain cancers.

2. Asparagus Cochinchinensis
In vitro studies researchers found that curcumin acts as a weak phytoestrogen, exhibits neuroprotective, antiproliferative and preventative effects against cancer.

3. Allium sativum,
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

4. Leaves of Camellia sinensis
In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.

5. Allium tuberosum
In a study of A Pilot Study on Anticancer Activities of Chinese Leek researchers found that Chinese leek extract inhibited cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Oral administration of leek extract significantly reduced lung metastases in the present animal model.

6. Etc.

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. In-vitro, researchers found that saponins in Gan Cao stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess anti-cancer activities.

2. Ling Zhi
Ling Zhi one of many herbs, has been used over thousands of year in treating abnormal cells growth in traditional Chinese and herbal medicine. In a study , researcher found that cancer cells responded to the herb much in the same way as they would react to chemotherapy drugs. Yet unlike chemotherapy drugs, which can also be toxic to healthy cells, herbal extracts were more deadly to cancer cells than to normal cells, indicating that they have some ability to specifically target cancer.

3. Ban Zhi Lian
In a recent study results suggest that ginger, tea, and a Chinese herb called Scutellaria barbata or Ban Zhi Lian could all help to prevent cancer.

4. Qing hao
Qing hao is also known as wormwood. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington researcher found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer among the ancient arts of Chinese folk medicine.

5. Bai Hua She She Cao
The Sanjiv Kumar YADAV, Shao Chin LEE(Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore researcher results showed that the ethanol extract from Bai Hua She She Cao effectively evokes cancer cell apoptosis, possibly through burst-mediated caspase activation.

6. Etc.

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