Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), and is often associated with AIDS, leading to red or purple bumps of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, face, torso or limb in a short rime. In fact, it is most commonly appear in the skin, the lining of the digestive tract or the lung and in men more often than in women. Kaposi' sarcoma tends to develop slowly, but in HIV/AIDS patients, though, the disease is aggressive and spread quickly. Kaposi' carcoma can be life threatening, if the cancer invades the to other organs, such as in lung, it can cause difficulty of breathing and in
in liver or digestive tract, it can cause internal bleeding.
Types of Kaposi' sarcoma
1. Classic/Mediterranean Kaposi' sarcoma
Classic Kaposi' sarcome is rare cancer developed more common in older men of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Jewish descent as it forms one or more lesions on the legs, ankles, or the soles of the feet. The classic Koposi' sarcoma is a slower growth type of cancer because of the progression without weaken immune system and many early diagnosis do not require treatment.
2. Endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma
Endemic KS is found in parts of Africa due to human herpes virus 8 or herpesvirus infection is more common. It develops more quickly affect men, women and children of all ages, but tends to occur in younger men under age 40.
3. Iatrogenic/transplant-associated Kaposi sarcoma
In this case, Iatrogenic/transplant-associated Kaposi sarcoma occurs to patient with infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) due to medication used to suppress the immune system of the body from rejecting the donated organ in transplant, leading to the increased risk of development of the disease.
4. Kaposi sarcoma in HIV negative men having sex with men
Recently report from the above study from Department of Dermatology, Cochin Hospital, APHP, Faculté de Médecine René Descartes, Paris, France, indicated that Kaposi's sarcoma may develop in homosexual or bisexual men without HIV infection. This type of Kaposi's sarcoma has clinical features in common with classical Kaposi's sarcoma but occurs in younger patients.
5. Epidemic/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma
Epidemic/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is a common type of Kaposi's in The US occurred in the people with HIV infection cause of weakening or damaging of the immune system. The risk of developing KS is depended to the CD4 count. If the CD4 count is lower, the higher the risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma.
1. Unexplained weight loss
Any Unintentional weight loss of over 10%
2. Swollen lymph nodes
Due to damage of lymph nodes cause of fluid building up
Sometime it will accompany with fever due to infection
4. Purple, red, or brown blotches or tumors on the skin
Due to blood vessels concentration.
5. Cough and shortness of breath
As the result of the disease have spread to the lung
6. Bleeding from gastrointestinal lesions
As a result of the disease has spread to the gastrointestinal tract
As a result of internal bleeding
Due to the disease has invaded the digestive system.
Causes and risk factors
1. Sexual Preferences
Homosexual and bisexual males are increased risk of the disease
Male between age of 20 - 60 with sexual preferences mentioned above is at high risk of Kaposi's sarcoma, and elder man with weakened immune system is at increased risk of Kaposi' sarcoma.
3. HIV and AID
People infected with HIV and AID have a weakened the immune system and increased risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma
Kaposi' sarcoma occurs more often in men than in women.
5. Ethic background
while classic Kaposi' sarcoma is more likely to develop in older men of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Jewish descent, epidemic/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is a common in The US.
Diagnosis and Test
Biopsy is the medical procedure of withdawing removing a skin lesion effected area and vitualize under microsocpe by a pathologist to review nature of the tumors and determine types of cancerous cells by a thin needle by either punch or excisional biopsy.
2. Chest x-ray
A chest X-ray radiograph (X-ray) is impotant for your doctor to visualize tissues, organs and bones that lie beneath the skin of the chest cavity to see if cancer has spread to the lung.
In case of patient having a symptoms of shortness of breath or other related to lung symptoms, Bronchosoly may be used to look into the lungs to check for anf lesion of Kaposi' sarcome by using general anesthesia and a tiny, fexible instrument with light inserted through the throat down into the lung.
4. Gastrointestinal endoscopy
In case there is gastrointestinal or related symptoms, gastrointestinal endoscopy is used to determine the nature of the tumors depending to the locations
a. Upper endoscopy
It is a procedure with the use of an endoscopy inserted into mouth to examine the esophagus and the stomach with the help of anesthesia and withdrawn sample by small instrument.
b. Capsule endoscopy
If symptoms are intestine related, capsule endoscopy is helpful by introduce a capsule with light and a camera to the intestine as the patient swalow it. As it travels through the small intestine (it may taken sometime), it takes thousands of pictures which will be viewed by the doctor from a computer.
Stages of Kaposi's sarcoma
There is no stage in classifying Kasopi's sarcoma but grouped into 5 types of the disease.
A. How to void
1. Sexual preference
Men with sexual preference such as homosexual and bisexual preference should practice sex safety to protect against infected HIV or AID virus.
Excessive drink can damage liver and suppress immune system function in fighting again infection caused by virus.
3. Get enough nutrients
Nutrients deficiency weakens the Immune system.
Accumulated toxins over s prolonged period of time can increase the risk of suppression of immune system.
Obesity can affect the function of white blood cells to produce anti-body and cause a depressed immune system.
6. Over dose of sugar
Study in 1973 showed that found that drinking Eating or drinking 100 grams (8 tbsp) of sugar suppresses the immune system.
Improve immine system is one the best way to prevent against infected by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and Kaposi's sarcoma
1. Citrus fruits
Citrus contains high amount of vitamin C, the essential vitamin in boosting immune system but also one of the free radical scavenger and vitamin A persursor.
Garlic is best known to contain to contain high amount of sulfur and antxidants that not only enhance the immune system but also immune system booster by activating the anti-microbial property infighting against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
3. Cranberries .
Phytochemicals in canberry under active research for possible benefits immune system, and as anti-cancer agents. Flavonoids found abundat in cranberry, inhibit cander cell in vitro study.
4. Omega 3 fatty acid
Several studies showed that Omega 3 inhibits cancer cells of in certain cancer cells, including breast, prostate, colon cancer cells, etc. Others studies also indicated that benefit cancer patients, improving appetite, weight, and quality of life.
In some studies, Antioxidants in honey have even been associated with reducing the damage done to the colon in colon inflamation diseases. Other study found that particular type of honey may be useful in treating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Honey also contain antimicobrial agent because of low water activity causing osmosis, hydrogen peroxide effect and high acidity.
C. Nutritional Supplement
1. Vitamin C
Vitamin C increases raised the concentration in the blood of IgA (Ig is an abbrevlatlonfor immunoglobulin), IgM, and the C3 complementcomponent-three key members of the immune system in fighting against foreiger invasion such as bacteria and virus. It is also a powerful antioxidant in scavenging free radicals thus stopping the oxidated damage to the cells DNA.
2. Vitamin E
Another free redical scangering antioxidant and immune booster by producing the protein, interleukin-2, that fights and kills bacteria and viruses in your body.
3. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside is a powerful antioxidant, it also enhances the rpoduction of B cells guarding our body against foreigner invasion.
4. Beta Carotene
Beta carotene is only another antioxidant, but enhance the production of B-cells in fighting against cancerous cells. An article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (August 1997) showed that increased consumption of beta carotene reduces risk of cancer, inhibits early stages of carcinogenesis, and reduces the risk of cancer in experimental animal models.
5. Bioflavenoids or Flavonoids
Flavonoids found abundat in cranberry, inhibit cander cell in vitro study.
Zinc, as a antioxidant is essential mineral in ading immune system by enhancing the proper function of T cells which belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, in fighting against damaging free radicals. Zinc supplements have been shown to slow the growth of cancer.
Selenium is one of the powerful antioxidant. In the extracellular space, it helps to influence immune processes by proliferating the response to mitogen, and macrophages, leukotriene.
A. In conventional medicine
The aims of the treatments are to control the disease condition and reduce symtoms due to the nature of arising from or occurring to many locations of Kaposi's sarcoma, depending to the severity of immune deficiency.
a. Radiation may be used to kill any cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing in the body. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation. In Kaposi' sarcoma, lesions of are respond well to radiotherapy treatment even with small dose.
b. Side effects
b. 2.Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation
a. Chemotherapy is most used to treat with advance stage of cancer combined with radio therapy, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells. In Koposi's sarcoma, many drugs have been used such as vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etc. but it is very difficult to give adequate dose because of immune suppression.
b. Side effects
b.3. Hair loss
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
3. Biological therapy
a. By enhancing the body's own immune or hormonal system to kill cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells relatively intact with the use of antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities or interrupting the hormonal or chemical pathways of the cancers with certain biological agents. In Kapois' sarcoma, the agent modifier alpha-interferon, has been used with good respond to patience with less severe immune suppressive condition.
b. Side effects
1. Allergic reactions
b. 2. Difficulty breathing, swelling
b. 3. Nausea
b.4. Fever or chills
b.5. Dizziness and fatigue
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