Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Most common Types of Cancer -Skin Cancer (Excluding Melanoma)

Skin cancer is a medical condition of uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells and often detected at an early stage.

Types of skin cancers
The three most common skin cancers are
1. Basal cell cancer
It is the most common type of skin cancer as a result of abnormal growth of the cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis. The cancer rarely spread and kill but can cause significant destruction and disfigurement to the affected skin area and accounted for more than 90% of all skin cancer in the U.S.
2. Squamous cell cancer
It arises from the uncontrolled multiplication of transformed malignant cells in the middle layer of the epidermis.
3. Melanoma
Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer but less common to other skin cancer as a result of malignancy of melanocytes, which are the cell produced dark pigment for your skin. see Melanoma Skin Cancer (Malignant Melanoma)

Causes and risk factors
1. Sun light
Skin cancer is best known as it caused by ultraviolet light of the sun, if you expose yourself in the sun light for a prolonged period of time, it can damage the melanocytes, in some cases, it can cause alternation of cell DNA, leading to skin cancer.

2. Family history
Risk of skin cancer increases if one of your direct family member has them.

3. Age
The risk of basal and squamous cell skin cancers goes up with age.

4. Gender
Risk of skin cancer increases in male gender.

5. Chemical exposures
Risk of skin cancer increase if you are exposure to certain chemicals, such as industrial tar, coal, paraffin, etc.

6. Radiation
Increased risk of skin cancer for people have been treated with radiotherapy, especial in children.

7. Smoking
Increased risk of skin cancer, especially on the lips, if you smoke.

8. Previous skin cancer
Increased risk of skin cancer if you had developed the diseases before.

9. Etc.

1. Abnormal Skin Patches, such as flat, scaly, brown or flesh-colored patches
2. A white, waxy scar-like sore
3. Scaly red skin lesion
4. Skin bump or lump
5. Sore that won't heal
6. Unintentional weight loss over 10%
7. Non-healing ulcer especially on lip or ear
8. Etc.

The Grades of prostate cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Skin Cancer is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the skin layer.

2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep the skin lining, but still completely inside the prostate.

a. Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:The spreading is < 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.

b. Stage IB:
The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).

b.1. Stage IB1: Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).

b.2. Stage IB2:Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the layers of skin.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the layers of skin.

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the layers of skin, into other distant parts of the body.

Diagnosis and tests
After recording the family history and a careful physical exams, including
1. Examine your skin
To determine whether the skin changes are caused by abnormal cell growth of the skin.

2. Biopsy
In skin biopsy, samples of affected abnormal area are taken by a thin, tube-like instrument to examine under microscopy to review the stage of the cancer.

3. Etc.

A. How to avoid
1. Avoid the sun between about 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
The sunlight are strongest between about 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. if you can state indoor, otherwise, please take pre-caution to prevent damage to your skin. Prolonged sun exposure or sun exposure accumulated over time may cause skin cancer.

2. Use sunscreen
Use sun screen between 10 a.m. to 4. p.m if you have to go out for skin exposed area.

3. Wear protective clothing.
Researchers found that a long-sleeved dark denim shirt offers an estimated UPF of 1,700 – the amounts to a complete sun block. In general, clothing made of tightly-woven fabric are best to protect skin against the sun and don't forget your hat.

4. Avoid tanning beds.
People who exposed to tanning bed at a young age are putting themselves at risk for skin cancer and aging their skin prematurely.

5. Sun sensitive medications.
Certain prescription and over the counter drugs may make your skin sensitive to sunlight, please make sure that you discuss them with your doctor or pharmacist about the side effects.

6. Check your skin regularly
Examine your skin often for new skin changes in existing moles, freckles, bumps and birthmarks will reduce the risk of skin cancer by catching them at the early stage.

7. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

2. Green tea
In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.

3. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

4. Soy
In laboratory studies, saponins have shown the ability to inhibit the reproduction of cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in several different tissues.

5. Freeze dried strawberry
In study of 36 participants consumed 60 grams of freeze dried strawberries daily for six months and completed a dietary diary chronicling their strawberry consumption. The results showed that 29 out of 36 participants experienced a decrease in histological grade of the precancerous lesions during the study.

6. Etc.

C. Nutritional supplements
1. Vitamin A, C. E
Vitamin A, C, E are free radical scavengers enhanced the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth. For more information of how antioxidants help to treat cancer, click here

2. Selenium
Research showed that selenium has a protective effect on various stages of cancer, including both the early and later stages of the disease.

3. Vitamin D
In some studies, researchers suggested that postmenopausal women who take calcium and vitamin D supplements may have a lower risk of developing cancer of any kind compared to those who don' t take these supplements.

4. Beta -carotene
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development.

5. Phytochemicals
Phytochemicals are under active research for possible benefits immune system, and as anti-cancer agents. Flavonoids found abundant in berry, inhibit caner cell in vitro study.

6. Etc.

A. In conventional medicine
1. Freezing.
a. If the cancer is in its early stage, freezing with liquid nitrigen (cryosurgery) is recommended to treat the inffected area. The dead tissue sloughs off when it thaws.
b. Risks and side effects
No health risks to the patient

2. Excisional surgery
Under local anesthesia, excisional surgery cut out a the affected skin cancer and the surrounding area including the extend of certain healthy skin in some cases. Skin reconstruction may be necessary if the removal cancer is located in the face area.
b. Risks and side effects
Surgical and anesthesia risk

3. Laser therapy
a. This is a type of treatment general used to superficial skin cancers by kill the cancer in the affected area with a narrow, intense beam. Laser therapy does little damage to the surrounded skin, with minimal bleeding, swelling and scarring.
b. Risks and side effects
No health risks to the patient

5. Curettage and electrodesiccation.
1. Curettage is the use of a curette to remove tissue by scraping or scooping
2. Electrocauterization is the process of destroying tissue using electric needle
In the operation, your surgeon first removes layers of cancer cells with a curette, then uses the electic needle to destroy the remaining cells.
3. Risks and Side effects
risk of infection

6. Radiotherapy
a. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills lung cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing. Depending to stage, grade and location of the affected area. Radiation may be used in situations when surgery isn't an option.
b. Side effects
b.1.. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.

7. Chemotherapy
a. Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of skin cancer, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

8. Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
a. PDT is a type of treatment generally used to eradicate malignant and early-stage cancer and reduce the tumor size in end-stage cancers. In skin cancer, PDT destroys skin cancer cells with a combination of laser light and drugs that make cancer cells sensitive to light. Patient will need to avoid excessive exposure to sunlight for a period of six weeks.
b. Side effects
b.1. Swelling
b.2. Nausea
b.3. Vomiting
b.4. Etc.

9. Biological therapy
By enhancing the body's own immune or hormonal system to kill cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells relatively intact with the use of antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities or interrupting the hormonal or chemical pathways of the cancers with certain drugs composed of small molecules.
b. Side effects
b.1. Allergic reactions,
b. 2. Difficulty breathing, swelling,
b. 3. Nausea,
b.4. Fever or chills, and
b.5. Dizziness and fatigue
b.6. Etc.

B. Heral medicine
1. Flaxseed
In animal studies, researchers found that lignans from flaxseed may also offer some protection against skin cancer including, possibly, the prevention of metastatic spread of melanoma from the skin to the lungs.

2. Green tea
In some clinical studies researchers found that polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer. Researchers also believe that polyphenols help kill cancerous cells and stop their progression.

3. Curcumin
In test tube and animal studies, researchers found that suggests curcumin may help to prevent, control, or kill several types of cancers, including prostate, breast, skin, and colon.

4. Absinthe
Absinthe is also known as Wormwood, a distilled, highly alcoholic beverage flowers extracted from leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer.

5. Etc.

C. in traditional Chinese medicine
1. Ling Zhi
In a study of Ling Zhi extracts tested them on three different types of cells: drug-sensitive small-cell lung cancer, drug-resistant small-cell lung cancer, and normal lung cells, researchers found that Ling Zhi killed lung cancer cells. Cancer cells responded to the herb much in the same way as they would react to chemotherapy drugs. Yet unlike chemotherapy drugs, which can also be toxic to healthy cells, herbal extracts were more deadly to cancer cells than to normal cells, indicating that they have some ability to specifically target cancer.

2. Ban Zhi Lian
Ban Zhi Lian is also known as scutellaria. The bitter and cool herb has been used in TCM as diuretic and to treat tumors and cancer as it clears heat, expels toxins, eliminates stagnation, stops bleeding and calms pain by enhancing the functions of lung, liver, spleen, stomach and large intestine channels. In a recent study results suggest that ginger, tea, and a Chinese herb called Scutellaria barbata or Ban Zhi Lian could all help to prevent cancer.

3. Pu Kong Yin (Dandelion Root)
In a study of the efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells, researchers found that treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

4. Jie Geng
The Researchers found that aponins in Jie Geng have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells.

5. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. In-vitro, researchers found that saponins in Gan Cao stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess anti-cancer activities.

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