Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Most common Types of Cancer - Mouth ( Oral Cancer) Cancer

Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).

Causes and risk factors
1. Smoking
In the studies of studies, Cancer Prevention Study (CPS) I and II, sponsored by the American Cancer Society (ACS), Researchers found that the mortality risk for oral cancer in cigarette smokers is substantially greater than that observed among life long never smokers. may be as a result of irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth from smoke and heat of cigarettes and cigars.
2. Alcohol drinking
Alcohol drinking is known to promote oral cancer. Oral cancer risk increases if a person is both a heavy smoker and drinker.
3. Chewing tobacco
May be as a result of irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth from chemicals in the tobacco
4. Chewing betel nut
May be caused by chemical compound which irritate the mucous membranes of the mouth
5. Age
Most cases of oral cancer is diagnosed at ages of over fifties.
6. Sun exposure to the lips
Prolonged period exposure to sunlight can cause damage to the cells of the lips, and increased risk of oral cancer
7. Mouth wash
Recent studies in Australia, Brazil and Germany point to alcohol-containing mouthwashes as also being etiologic agents in the oral cancer risk family
8. Gender
Men are more likely to develop oral cancer. It may be due to smoking and drinking habit
9. Chronic irritation
Bad teeth and bad feeling may contributed to increased risk of oral cancer
10. Etc.

Symptoms
1. Poorly healing mouth ulcer
Poorly healing mouth ulcer indicates something are wrong within the cells and can be cancerous, if left untreated for a prolonged period of time.
2. A sore that does not heal on the lip or in the mouth
If the ulcer does not heal with 2 weeks, it may be a sign of abnormal cell growth or tumor
3. A lump or thickening in the oral cavity
Due to cell growth irregularity
4. Patches that are white or red (or both) inside the mouth or on the lips
May be due to infection or inflammation
5. Loose teeth
May be due to inflammation of gingivitis
6. Dentures that not fit well
It increases the risk of infection and gum damage
7. Problems speaking clearly
8. A lump in the neck
Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the neck region
9. Etc.

Types of oral cancer
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is one of most common types of oral cancer account for over 90% of all cases and arises from the squamous cell layer in the lining of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

2. Verrucous carcinoma
The low grade rarely spread verrucous carcinoma is uncommon accounted only appraximate 5% of all cases, buti t can spread deeply into surrounding tissue.

3. Minor salivary gland cancers
The cancer is originated from the salivary gland accounted less than 1% of all cases

Diagnosis and tests
1. Biopsy
In oral biopsy, a sample of mole or the effected area is taken by a thin, tube-like instrument under local anesthesia and examined by a pathologist under microscopy to review the stage of the cancer.

2. Quadroscopy
This is a test used a thin, tube-like instrument with light and canera at the end to examine or remove tissue samples of below
a. Esophargoscopy It is the examination of the interior of the esophagus to look for any abnormal cells growth.
b. Gastroscopy
It is the examination of the interior of the stomach and duodenum to look for any abnormality
c. Bronchoscopy
Examination of the lower airway with the same purposes.
d. Nasopharyngoscopy
Examination of the upper airway with the same purposes.

2. X ray
Chest X ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation to take image and check for any abnormality of the lung.

3. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but it can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.

4. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the lymph nodes and surrounding areas.

5. Etc.

Grades
The Grades of oral cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Stages
1. Stage O
Benign tumor
2. Stage I
The cancer is < 2 cm in size (about 1 inch), with no lymph nodes spreading found in the area.
3. Stage II
The cancer is ≥ 2 cm in size, but < 4 cm (less than 2 inches), with no lymph nodes spreading found in the area.
4. Stage III
The cancer is ≥ cm in size, or any size with only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as of the cancer. The cancerous node is ≤ 3 cm (about one inch).
5. Stage IV
The cancer has spread to tissues around the lip and oral cavity with lymph nodes in the area may or may be infected. The cancer of any size and has spread to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck or lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, or to any lymph node that measures ≥ 6 cm (over 2 inches) in size or to distant parts of the body.

Prevention
A. How to avoid
1. Stop smoking
As smoking is one the major cause of oral cancer due to carcinogen constantly burning up and irritating the oral cavity.

2. Alcohol
Researchers found that people with drinking and smoking habits are at risk in developing oral cancer.

3. Reduce sun light
Your lips is at risk to oral cancer, if it is exposed and damaged by sun UV.

4. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Researchers found that people infected infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) may increase the risk of oral cancer.

5. Stop chewing tobacco
Tobacco contains certain amount of chemical compounds which can burn up and damage the oral cavity.

6. Examination
Oral cancer in most of the time is discovered by your dentist.

7. Warning sides
Any warning signs such as a lump around the mouth, sores on the mouth that bleed, trouble chewing or swallowing, sensitivity in your mouth, etc. should be examined by your doctor.

8. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Vinegar
In a laboratory study, researchers found that vinegar may be able to kill cancer cells or slow their growth.

2. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

3. Foods with high amount of dietary fiber
In a preliminary clinical trial, researchers found that a diet high in fiber (in conjunction with lifestyle changes and conventional medication) may help protect against certain types of cancer.

4. Cruciferous Vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

5. Etc.


C. Nutritional supplements
1. Antioxidants
Antioxidants such free radical scavengers vitamin A, C, E enhance the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth.

2. Modified citrus pectin
In a study of researcher found modified citrus pectin may help block the growth and metastasis of solid tumors.

3. Selenium
In a study of Selenium and oral cancer. Review of the literature researchers found that The toxic effect of free oxygen radicals has been suggested to have carcinogenic properties, and this hypothesis may be the link between low selenium levels and increased cancer morbidity.

4. Quercetin
Quercetin is a type of phytochemical, also known as a flavonoid. In cell culture or animal studies, researchers found that quercetin has activity against some types of cancer cells and suggested it may be potential benefits in treating cancer.

5. Etc.

Treatments
A. In conventional medicine
1. Surgery
Surgery of oral cancer is depended to the size, position and appearance after surgery. If a large portion of tissue is removed, the reconstructive surgery should be essential to the patient. the aims of the surgery is to provide maximum cure with minimum affects to the patient appreanece
2. Radiotherapy
Oral cancer has been responsive well to radiotherapy treatment and is recommended to area with inaccessible area to surgery.
3. Chemotherapy
Drugs used in chemotherapy includes platinum, bleomycin, vinsblastine, etc.
4. Layer therapy
Layer therapy may used only in certain circumstance.

B. Herbal medicine
1. Wild asparagus
In a study from Rohtak, India, tested extracts from several plants used in traditional or folk medicine against microbials found in the mouths of oral cancer patients, researchers found that eight of the plants tested were able to significantly affect the growth of organisms collected by oral swab, and pure cultures of bacteria and fungi grown in the lab, including wild asparagus.

2. Curcumin
In a study conducted by S. Uddin and colleagues at the Department of Human Cancer Genomic Research at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Saudi Arabia, researchers found that Curcumin in turmeric may inhibit the proliferation of lymphoma cancer by modulating cell cycling and inducing apoptosis.

3. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

4.
Green tea
In a study od examination of the effects of green tea extracts, researcher found that halts growth of oral cancer cells and breaks down and kills existing oral cancer.

5. Etc.

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Lei Gong Teng (Thunder God Vine) and Teng Huang (Gamboge)
Celastrol is a chemical found in the Chinese herb called Lei Gong Teng (Tripterygii Wilfordi Radix Folium). Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of Teng Huang gamboge. A recent study was conducted at the Medical College of Georgia in Atlanta, funded in part by the by National Institutes of Health, the Mayo Foundation and a grant from the American Heart Association. The study reported a “combination of Gambogic acid (GA) and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect” and concluded this “may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.”

2. Bai Hua She She Cao The Sanjiv Kumar YADAV, Shao Chin LEE(Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore researcher results showed that the ethanol extract from Bai Hua She She Cao effectively evokes cancer cell apoptosis, possibly through burst-mediated caspase activation.

3. Ban Zhi Lian
Ban Zhi Lian is also known as scutellaria. The bitter and cool herb has been used in TCM as diuretic and to treat tumors and cancer as it clears heat, expels toxins, eliminates stagnation, stops bleeding and calms pain by enhancing the functions of lung, liver, spleen, stomach and large intestine channels. In a recent study results suggest that ginger, tea, and a Chinese herb called Scutellaria barbata or Ban Zhi Lian could all help to prevent cancer.

4. Etc.

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