Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Rare Cancers In Childhood - Wilms' Tumor of Kidney

Rare cancer in childhood
Cancer in childhood are rare, approximately 1 in every 600 children will develop any type of cancer before the age of 15 due to abnormal cells growth in part of a child body.

Wilms' tumor of kidney
Wilm's tumor of kidney also known as nephroblastoma is rare cancer of the kidneys that only occurs in children. About 75% occurs in normal children and only (25%) is associated with other developmental abnormalities.

Symptoms
1. Abdominal swelling
2. An abdominal mass you can feel
It happens to approximate 15% of all cases
3. Fever
A general cause of cancer
4. Blood in the urine
Due to cancer has caused damage to the kidney
5. Loss of appetite
A general cause of cancer
6. Weight loss
Unintentional weight loss over 10% is common symptom of cancer
7. Anemia
Due to the cancer has affected the function of erythropoietin in production of hemoglobin.
8. Hypertension
Due to secretion of renin by the tumor.
9. Etc

Causes and risk factors
1. Gene mutation
a. Mutations of the WT1 gene on chromosome 11 p 13 are found in approximately 20% of Wilms' tumors.
b. A inactivated gene on the X chromosome, WTX, is found in approximately 30% of Wilms' tumor cases.
2. Race
People of African descent have the higher risk of Wilms' tumor.
3. Gender
Female are also more at risk than male to develop Wilms' tumors.
4. Age
Increased risk of Wilms' tumor if the children is under 5 of ages
5. Family history
Approximately less than 3% of children with Wilms' tumor have at least one relative with the same cancer
6. Heredity
Birth defects such as Aniridia, Hemihypertrophy, Cryptorchidism, etc., according to statistic has a strong link to Wilms' tumor
7. Etc.

Diagnosis and test
1. Abdominal swelling
2. An abdominal mass you can feel
It happens to approximate 15% of all cases
3. Fever
A general cause of cancer
4. Blood in the urine
Due to cancer has caused damage to the kidney
5. Loss of appetite
A general cause of cancer
6. Weight loss
Unintentional weight loss over 10% is common symptom of cancer
7. Anemia
Due to the cancer has affected the function of erythropoietin in production of hemoglobin.
8. Hypertension
Due to secretion of renin by the tumor.
9. Etc

Grades
The Grades of Wilms' Tumor of Kidney are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Stages
Wilms' Tumor of Kidney is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the kidney.

2. Stage I
In stage I, the cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep the prostate lining, but still completely inside the kidney.

a. Stage IA
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The invasion area is ≥ 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2:
The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b. Stage IB:
The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue but less than 5cm (2 inch)
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but less than 5cm (2 inch)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the kidney.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the kidney.

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the affected kidney into other distant parts of the body.

Diagnosis and tests
1. Blood test of creatinine
a. A blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood.
b. Creatinine clearance
Collection of the samples of urine to compare the level of creatinine from the urine with the one from the blood.

2 Ultrasound
Ultrasound allows your doctor to visualize and assess the size and to check for any abnormality and surrounding area with image taken from the test.

3. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes.

4. MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the lymph nodes and surrounding areas.

4. Chest X ray
Check X ray is to check the lung for spreading of the cancer.

5. Biopsy
A sample of the effected area is taken by a thin tube-like instrument, under local anesthesia or general anesthesia examined by a pathologist under microscopy to view the type and stage of the cancer.

6. Etc.

Treatments
Once the location, stage and grade of the cancer is determined, treatments are include
1. Surgery and chemotherapy
Surgery is the first treatment used to remove as much of cancer as possible and to accurate determine if there is any spread.

2. Chemotherapy
a. If the cancer has spread, chemotherapy with use of drugs such as vinristine, actinomycin,adrianycin, platinum drugs, etc. The cure of Wilm's cancer is very high, even the cancer has spread to distant part of the body.
Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of cancer combined with radio therapy. Chemo is recommended to shrink the tumor if surgery is not possible.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

3. Radiotherapy
a. Sometime doctors give radiation for kidney tumors after surgery and before chemotherapy. Radiation may be used to kill any cancer cells remaining in the body locally. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills the cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing.
b. Side effects
b.1. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.

4. Etc.

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