Friday, June 24, 2011

Most common Types of Cancer - Ovarian Cancer - Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer

Germ cell ovarian cancer is a cancer of the egg producing cells within the ovary and can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. It tends to occur in children and teens as a result of birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo. The cancer occurs in a much younger age group between late teens to early twenty and curable in most cases.

Symptoms
In early stage of the cancer, most women experience no specific symptoms or symptoms.
1. An abdominal mass
2. Bloating
3. Back pain
4. Urinary urgency
5. Constipation
6. Tiredness
7. Pelvic pain
8. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or
9. Unintentional weight loss
Unintentional weight loss of over 10% is a concerned symptom of all cancers.
10. Buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity
11. Etc.

Diagnosis and tests
After taking the family history and physical examination of the pelvic region. diagnosis in general starts with
1. Serum tumor marker test
The blood test is to determine the presence of the beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (BHCG) and Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) produced by the cancer, the higher the levels indicates more advance of the disease.
2. Gynecologic ultrasonography
Gynecologic ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique allowed your doctor to visualize the ovaries and around structures and to assess blood flow to the ovaries as well as looking for any abnormal cells growth mass, including cancer.

3. Ovarian biopsy
In ovarian biopsy, samples of ovaries are taken by a thin, tube-like instrument to examine under microscopy to review the stage of the cancer.

4. CT scan
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. This test is helped to determine whether liver abnormality is a cyst or a tumor. Unfortunately, CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.

5. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the ovaries and surrounding areas.

6. Etc.

Grade
The Grades of ovarian cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Stage
2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep ovaries lining, but still completely inside the ovaries.
a. Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is not ≤ 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b. Stage IB:
The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5cm (2 inches).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (2 inches)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the ovaries.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the ovaries.

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the ovaries, other distant parts of the body

Debulkability
Can all the tumor be removed surgically? Technically, it is sometime impossible but combining with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in many instants can lead to completely cure of the disease.
Rebulkability

Treatments
A. In conventional medicine
the aim of the treatment is to cure, because ovarian cancer risk of recurrence is very low but depending to the grade, stage and rebbulkability.
1. Surgery
a. In surgery, after determine the grade, stage and rebbulkability, the surgeon will try to remove as much as cancer infected area as possible.
b. Risks and side effects
Surgical and anesthesia risks

2. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of cancer combined with radio therapy, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells. Ovarian cancer is often respond well to chemotherapy. Drugs used to treat ovarian caner include platinum, taxol, cis-platinum, ondansectron, etc.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

3. Radio therapy
a. Radiation may be used for stages II, III, and IV to kill any cancer cells remaining in the body. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills the cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing.
c. Side effects
c.1. Fatigue
c.2. Chest pain
c.3. Heart problem
c.4. Short of breath
c.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
c.6. Etc.

4. Intra-peritoneal therapy
a. Intra-peritoneal therapy is a treatment of injecting drugs directly into the abdomen.
b. Risks and side effects
b.1. Infection,
b.2. Blockage
b.3. Leak
b.4. Catheter-related complications
b.5. Abdominal pain,
b.6. Etc.

5. Neooadjuvant chemotherapy
a. Neooadjuvant chemotherapy is a type of chemotherapy using drugs to reduce the size and shrink the tumor before surgery.
b. Risks and side effects during treatment
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

6. Etc.


For other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Please follow me at http://twitter.com/kylejnorton

No comments:

Post a Comment

Post a Comment